In Great Britain, Rutter et al. (1983) explored the characteristics of various schools from the same environments. He found out, that the schools differ significantly in some characteristics, although their social features are very much alike. Especially interesting were their findings, concerning characteristics, which are differences between the schools with pupils from the lowest social classes. In some of these schools, pupils had no special difficulties, either in learning or in establishing of social contacts with their teachers. Most children were not behaviorally disturbed or delinquent, their teachers did not use punishments very often, and exclusions of pupils were few. In contrast, pupils at other schools had many learning problems and behavior problems. Among them there were many behaviorally difficult pupils and delinquent pupils, their teachers punished them often, many were even excluded. Rutter et al. tried to find out the connections between characteristics of schools and teachers on one hand, and behavioral characteristics and success at school on the other. He called the school environment as legal, social and psychosocial unit »the school ethos«, and sometimes »school culture« (Kos 1992). In later years the school ethos was studied also by other authors, who tried to define it even more precisely. As far as its fundamental characteristics are concerned, inclusive school is identical to the school with high ethos, although the concept of inclusive school is a decade younger than the concept of school ethos. The leaderships of some schools and their teachers found out, that inclusive school, that is one school for all has advantages over achievement oriented, excluding and punishment oriented school. The leaderships of the former schools obviously favour the values of inclusive schools, so they disseminate their convictions and professional orientations among the teachers.
Keywords: school, pupils, teachers, inclusive school, leadership, behaviour.
Ph.D. Vinko Skalar