DELO Z RAZREDOM IN OTROK S POSEBNIMI POTREBAMI

WORK WITH THE CLASSROOM AND A CHILD WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Estera Jurša, univ. dipl. soc. ped., Natalija Novak, univ. dipl. soc. ped.
Številka 57 (2018)

Povzetek

Pri delu z razredom in v razredu se učitelj srečuje z učenci, ki s svojimi osebnimi značilnostmi soooblikujejo dinamiko razredne skupine. V to dinamiko so vpeti tudi učitelj, njegova osebnost in njegove značilnosti. Prav značilnosti vsakega posameznika in njihovega sobivanja vodijo v različnih situacijah v različne odzive tako posameznika kot skupine. Delo z razredom, še posebej, ko je vanj vključen učenec s posebnimi potrebami, je pestro in zanimivo. Dejavnosti morajo biti premišljeno načrtovane, prilagojene trenutni dinamiki, hkrati pa fleksibilne in prožne, ker samo tako omogočajo dobro vključenost učenca s posebnimi potrebami in dobro vzdušje v razredu. Socialni pedagog izvajanje dodatne strokovne pomoči usmerja v razvijanje socialnih in komunikacijskih spretnosti učenca s posebnimi potrebami preko raznovrstnih skupinskih dejavnosti. V teh dejavnostih sodeluje razred kot celota skupaj z učitelji. Vsebina dejavnosti je ciljno načrtovana in je del individualiziranega programa, ki vključuje tudi druge prilagoditve in oblike dela na socialnem in čustvenem področju. Izvajalci so vsi strokovni delavci, ki prihajajo v stik z učencem. Med izvajalci mora potekati soustvarjalen in timski odnos, ki omogoča dobro poznavanje učenca s posebnimi potrebami, razredne dinamike ter ovir in priložnosti za dobro delo z razredom. Socialni pedagog ne prevzema samo vloge izvajalca dejavnosti v razredu, ampak ima tudi vlogo usmerjevalca, koordinatorja, podpornika, supervizorja in zaupnika v mreži udeležencev. Da lahko inkluzija steče, mora med člani strokovne skupine vladati zaupen odnos, ki temelji na profesionalnosti, strokovnosti in  transparentnosti vlog posameznika. Aktivni soudeleženci pri pripravi, načrtovanju in izvajanju IP-ja morajo biti tudi starši.

Ključne besede: učenec s posebnimi potrebami, razred, socialno učenje, inkluzija


Abstract

While working with a class and in a class, a teacher encounters students who by their personal and individual characteristics co-design the dynamics of a class group. The teacher, his/her personality and his/her characteristics are also integrated in this dynamics. Especially these characteristics of each individual and their common coexistence lead in different situations to various responses of the individual and the group. Working with a class, especially if it includes a student with special needs, is varied and interesting. The activities have to be carefully planned, adjusted to the current dynamics but at the same time flexible and elastic. This enables good inclusion of a student with special needs and creates good atmosphere in a class. A social worker directs the implementation of additional professional assistance in developing social and communication skills of a student with special needs through variety of group activities. In these activities a class as a whole participates together with teachers. The contents of the activities are targeted and they are a part of individual programme which also includes other adjustments and forms of work on social and emotional field. The performers are all professional workers who come in contact with a student. There has to be a co-creative and team-based relationship among the performers, which enables a good knowledge of a student with special needs, the class dynamics and the obstacles and the opportunities for good work with a class. A social worker doesn’t have just a role as a performer of activities in a class but also as a moderator, coordinator, supporter, supervisor and confidant in the net of participants. In order for an inclusion to take place, members of the expert group must have a confidential relationship, which is based on professionalism, proficiency and transparency of the roles of the individual. Parents also have to be active participants in the preparation, plan and implementation of the student’s IP (Individual Plan).

Keywords: student with special needs, class, social study, inclusion