GIBALNA AKTIVNOST PRI OTROCIH Z MOTNJO POZORNOSTI

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER

Anuša Ajster, vzg. predš. otr.
Številka 57 (2018)

Povzetek

V šolski praksi smo priče različnim problemom, s katerimi se spopadamo vzgojitelji in učitelji in so povezani z inkluzijo. Navadno smo pripravljeni sprejeti otroka s posebnimi potrebami v svoj oddelek ali razred, če le takih otrok v enem oddelku/razredu ni preveč. Otroku z motnjo pozornosti in koncentracije je potrebno z različnimi pristopi pomagati, da lahko uspešno sobiva v oddelku z drugimi učenci. Zelo pomembne so za takšnega otroka gibalne aktivnosti, ki so umeščene v pouk, saj bistveno vplivajo na ravnovesje med mirovanjem in gibanjem, kar otrok z motnjo pozornosti nujno potrebuje. Različne dejavnosti in igre, pri katerih se giblje vse telo ali pa samo deli telesa, lahko uporabljamo za ponazoritev, utrjevanje in preverjanje različnih učnih vsebin, otroku omogočamo dodatne načine oblikovanja predstav in izražanja, več možnosti za aktivno sodelovanje, sprostitev in večjo dinamiko v izvedbi učnega procesa. Neposredno lahko gibalne aktivnosti uporabimo pri predmetu matematika za ponazarjanje in izražanje količin, števil, prostorskih odnosov…, pri predmetu slovenščina za učenje pisanja, branja ter tudi pri ostalih predmetih. Posredno pa gibalna aktivnost vpliva na občutenje telesa, zaznavanje, zbranost, pozornost, pomnjenje. Izvajanje vaj, kot so ležeča osmica, vaje za raztezanje, ravnotežje in umirjanje, je primer uspešnega vključevanja otroka z motnjo pozornosti in vaje bodo predstavljene kot aktivnosti, ki to omogočajo in olajšajo.

Ključne besede: gibalne dejavnosti, motnja pozornosti, učenje, sposobnosti, vaje


Abstract

In school practice primary school and preschool teachers witness various problems that are associated with inclusion. Usually, we are willing to accept a child with special needs in our section or class, if only there are not too much of such children in one section/class. Different approaches are needed to help a child with a disorder of attention and concentration in order to be able to coexist successfully with the other students. For such a child are very important physical activities that are placed in the classroom, because they have a significant influence on the balance between rest and movement, which a child with a disability urgently needs. Different activities and games that cause the movement of all of the body or just parts of the body can be used to illustrate, consolidate and verify various learning content, enable the child with additional ways of forming ideas and expressions, more possibilities for active participation, relaxation and greater dynamics in the performance of the learning process. Directly we can use moving activities in the subject Mathematics for illustrating and expressing quantities, numbers, spatial relations…, in the subject Slovene for learning writing, reading, as well as in other subjects. Indirectly, the physical activity affects the sense of the body, perception, concentration, attention, retention. Doing exercises, such as a lying eighth, exercises for stretching, balance and calming are examples of successful inclusion of a child with a disorder of attention and will be presented as activities that enable and facilitate this.

Keywords: physical activity, a disorder of attention, learning, abilities, exercises