IZURIMO JEZIČEK – VAJE ZA KREPITEV MOTORIKE GOVORIL Z ELEMENTI JOGE SMEHA V PREDŠOLSKEM OBDOBJU

LET’S TRAIN OUR TONGUES – EXERCISES FOR STRENGTHENING MOTORIC FUNCTIONS OF THE SPEECH ORGANS WITH ELEMENTS OF LAUGHTER YOGA IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION

Andreja Hafner Krek, prof. def.
Številka 57 (2018)

Povzetek

Na razvoj govora vplivajo različni notranji (psihološki, fiziološki) in zunanji (socialni, sociološki) dejavniki. V prispevku bo predstavljen pomen fizioloških podlag za razvoj govora oziroma konkretno razvoj splošne motorike telesa in govornih organov. Govor je namreč fiziološka aktivnost glasovne produkcije artikuliranih glasov. Razvitost splošne telesne motorike je podlaga za ustrezen govorni razvoj. Od tega, kako otrok hodi, teče, prijema ali podaja predmet, kako uporablja različne predmete, je odvisna njegova moč odzivanja in usposabljanja za življenje. Artikulacija je najbolj izpopolnjen mehanizem, ki ne pride z rojstvom, ampak postane avtomatiziran z razvojem. Če je splošna telesna motorika na višji ravni, so razmere za razvoj govornih gibov ugodnejše. Raziskave kažejo, da na ravni predšolske vzgoje in osnovnošolskega izobraževanja iz leta v leto narašča delež otrok z govorno-jezikovnimi težavami. Le-te so povezane z neustrezno razvito motoriko govornih organov (gibljivost jezika, ustnic ipd.). Težave s slabšo motoriko govoril oziroma govornega aparata vodijo v nepopolno izreko glasov, izpuščanje glasov, popačen govor ipd. Tudi naša opažanja se ujemajo z zgoraj navedenim. Zato smo se v našem vrtcu odločili, da bomo v predšolskih skupinah začeli preventivni program oz. vaje za krepitev govornega aparata z elementi joge smeha. V program smo vključili igre, ki razvijajo grobe in finomotorične spretnosti otrok, vaje dihanja, sproščanja, vaje za razvoj govornih organov in govorne igre.

Ključne besede: govorni razvoj, govorno-jezikovne težave, predšolski otrok, preventiva, vaje za krepitev govornega aparata


Abstract

Various factors influence the development of speech. They are divided into internal (psychological, physiological) and external (social, sociological). This article is going to present the importance of physiological bases for the development of speech, more concretely the development of general motoric functions of the body and speech organs. Speech is namely physiological activity of vocal production of articulated sounds. Development of general motoric functions of the body is the basis for appropriate development of speech. The way a child walks, runs, holds, passes, and uses different objects, determines his strength of response and getting ready for life. Articulation is the most improved mechanism that doesn’t come with birth. It becomes automatized with development. If general motoric functions of the body are high, conditions for the development of speech organs are more favourable. Research shows that the number of children with speech impediments in preschool education increases yearly. Speech impediments are connected with insufficient development of motorics of speech organs (flexibility of the tongue, lips, etc.). Difficulties with worse motorics of speech organs lead to insufficient articulation of sounds, omission of sounds, deformed speech and the like. Our findings show the same results. Based on the results, we decided to start a prevention programme in our preschool groups in kindergarten in the form of exercises for strengthening speech organs with elements of laughter yoga. We included in the programme games that develop children’s gross and fine motor skills, breathing exercises, relaxation, and exercises for development of speech organs and speaking games.

Keywords: development of speech, speech impediments, pre-schooler, prevention, exercises for strengthening speech organs