SPREMLJEVALCI PREDŠOLSKIH OTROK S POSEBNIMI POTREBAMI – OD SPLOŠNO DOGOVORJENEGA H KONKRETNEMU NA PRIMERU LJUBLJANSKIH VRTCEV

TEACHER ASSISTANTS FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS, FROM THE GENERALLY AGREED TO THE SPECIFIC: A CASE STUDY OF LJUBLJANA PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

Katja Poglajen Ručigaj, mag. soc. ped.
Številka 57 (2018)

Povzetek

V prispevku je predstavljena analiza spremljevalcev predšolskih otrok s posebnimi potrebami v rednih oddelkih ljubljanskih vrtcev. Zakonodaja omogoča, da otroci s posebnimi potrebami z odločbo o usmeritvi pridobijo pravico do stalnega ali začasnega spremljevalca za izvajanje fizične pomoči. V ljubljanskih vrtcih se s podporo ustanovitelja otrokom, katerih posebne potrebe so tako specifične, da je ogroženo njihovo zdravje ali varnost, nudi tudi t. i. nadstandardni spremljevalec. Ta se zagotovi za premostitveni čas do pridobitve odločbe o usmeritvi, v kateri je opredeljena pravica do začasnega spremljevalca. V prispevku je predstavljena analiza spremljevalcev predšolskih otrok v ljubljanskih vrtcih v letih od 2008 do 2016. Predstavljeno je gibanje števila otrok s priznano pravico do spremljevalca. Ugotovljene so posebnosti otrok, ki jim je bil dodeljen nadstandardni spremljevalec ali začasni spremljevalec po odločbi. Narejena je analiza starosti otrok ob pridobitvi pravice do nadstandardnega spremljevalca oziroma začasnega spremljevalca po odločbi. Podatki kažejo, da se v ljubljanskih vrtcih potrebe po spremljevalcih povečujejo. Z odločbami o usmeritvi je zagotovljenih vse več začasnih spremljevalcev. Največ začasnih spremljevalcev je dodeljenih dolgotrajno bolnim otrokom in otrokom z avtističnimi motnjami. V primerljivem obdobju so otroci pravico do nadstandardnega spremljevalca v povprečju dobili hitreje kot pravico do začasnega spremljevalca po odločbi. Te ugotovitve so pomembne zlasti za načrtovanje vzgojnega procesa v vrtcih in ugotavljanje stopnje in uspešnosti integracije otrok s posebnimi potrebami v redne oddelke vrtcev.

Ključne besede: otroci s posebnimi potrebami, predšolska vzgoja, spremljevalci


Abstract

This paper examines the involvement of teacher assistants of pre-school children with special needs at regular Ljubljana pre-school institutions. The legislation provides children with special needs, on the basis of a guidance decision, with the right to a permanent or temporary teacher assistant to help with their physical needs. At Ljubljana pre-school institutions, children whose special needs are so specific that their health or safety are at risk are also offered a higher-standard teacher assistant, with the support of school management. This is provided for the period prior to the acquisition of a guidance decision defining the right to a temporary teacher assistant. The paper presents an analysis of pre-school teacher assistants at Ljubljana pre-school institutions between 2008 and 2016, examining the fluctuation in numbers of higher-standard and temporary teacher assistants by decision, year and category. The special needs of children assigned a higher-standard or temporary teaches assistant by decision are defined, and an analysis is produced of the age of children acquiring the right to a higher-standard or temporary teacher assistant by decision. The figures indicate that the need for teaches assistants is rising at Ljubljana pre-school institutions, with an increasing number of temporary chaperones being provided under guidance decisions. The highest percentage of temporary teacher assistants is assigned to children with long-term health issues and those with autistic conditions. In a comparable period, children acquired the right to a higher-standard teacher assistant on average more quickly than the right to a temporary teacher assistant by decision. These findings are important in particular for planning the education process in pre-school institutions and establishing the extent and success of integration of children with special needs in regular pre-school institutions.

Keywords: children with special needs, pre-school education, teacher assistants